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And by TweetGenie as well. For LP, this is by design. Unigrams Single tokens, similar to the top function words, but then using all tokens instead of a subset. Top Function 4: Then we describe our experimental data and the evaluation method Section 3after which we proceed to describe the various author profiling strategies that we investigated Section 4.

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For the bigrams Figure 2we see much the same picture, although there are differences in the details. Normalized 5-gram About K features. We will focus on the token n-grams and the normalized character 5-grams. Then we outline how we evaluated the various strategies Section 3.

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However, for classification, it is more important how often the token is used by each gender. Experimental Data and Evaluation In this section, we first describe the corpus that we used in our experiments Section 3.

The position in the plot represents the relative number of men and women who used the token at least once somewhere in their tweets.

Below, in Section 5. Most of them rely on the tokenization described above. As scaling is not possible when there are columns with constant values, such columns were removed first.

Finally, we included feature types based on character n-grams following kjell et al. You should use it for new works, and you may want to relicense existing works under it. Are they mostly targeting the content of the tweets, i.

An interesting observation is that there is a clear class of misclassified users who have a majority of opposite gender users in their social network.

Several errors could be traced back to the fact that the account had moved on to another user since We could have used different dividing strategies, but chose balanced folds in order to give a equal chance to all machine learning techniques, also those that have trouble with unbalanced data.

The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. As we approached the task from a machine learning viewpoint, we needed to select text features to be provided as input to the machine learning systems, as well as machine learning systems which are to use this input for classification.

And actually checking the existence of a proposed URL was computationally infeasible for the amount of text we intended to process. For the character n-grams, our first observation is that the normalized versions are always better than the original versions.

Although LP performs worse than it could on fixed numbers of principal components, its more detailed confidence score allows a better hyperparameter selection, on average selecting around 9 principal components, where TiMBL chooses a wide range of numbers, and generally far lower than is optimal.

Then, as several of our features were based on tokens, we tokenized all text samples, using our own specialized tokenizer for tweets.

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In scores, too, we see far more variation. No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

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Learn more about CC licensing, or use the license for Dating site quizzes own material. From this point on in the discussion, we will present female confidence as positive numbers and male as negative.

There is an extreme number of misspellings even for Twitterwhich may possibly confuse the systems models. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use.

In this paper, we start modestly, by attempting to derive just the gender of the authors 1 automatically, purely on the basis of the content of their tweets, using author profiling techniques.

Where Cohen assumes the two distributions have the same standard deviation, we use the sum of the two, practically always different, standard deviations. There is much more variation in the topics, but most of it is clearly girl talk of the type described in Section 5.

No works are automatically put under the new license, however. Before being used in comparisons, all feature counts were normalized to counts per words, and then transformed to Z-scores with regard to the average and standard deviation within each feature.

In the example tweet, we find e. All users, obviously, should be individuals, and for each the gender should be clear. Unigrams are mostly closely mirrored by the character 5-grams, as could already be suspected from the content of these two feature types.